NoSQL or Not Only SQL is a renowned database management system (DBMS) that manages a large volume of unstructured or semi-structured data.

Since it eliminates various limitations of conventional relational databases, the NoSQL database has become popular. Google, Facebook, Amazon, and Netflix are some reputable companies that use NoSQL.

This blog makes you aware of different types of NoSQL databases. In addition, you will learn their features.

Before we move further, let’s find out how NoSQL is diverse from SQL.

SQL vs. NoSQL Databases: Quick Comparison


SQL databases are Relational Databases, while NoSQL databases are known as non-relational databases.

Language of Query

SQL databases use a Structured Query Language to do jobs like Delete, Select, Update, and Insert. On the other hand, NoSQL has its query language for manipulating data.
NoSQL works on a framework or API, depending on the type of database.


Traditional SQL databases are vertically scalable. You can enhance their performance by upgrading hardware.

On the contrary, NoSQL databases are horizontally scalable from the ground up. Consequently, they are better at handling large amounts of data and traffic.

Property Followed

SQL follows ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability) transactions when it comes to managing data integrity.

NoSQL databases use the CAP theorem (Consistency, Availability, and Partition Tolerance).

Types of NoSQL Databases

We can categorize NoSQL databases into the following 4 types. Each has its pros and limitations. You can choose them based on your requirements.
Let us learn about them in detail.

Key Value Pair Database

Key-Value Pair Database is one of the simplest types of NoSQL Databases. It is a non-relational database storing data elements in key-value pairs.

Key-Value Pair Database can handle heavy loads of data. It stores data as a hash map and has two columns, i.e., the Key and the Value.

Each database key is different, while the value can be String, Binary Large Objects, or JavaScript Object Notation.

The three major features of the Key Value Pair Database are speed, straightforwardness, and scalability.

Generally, this type of database is used for creating dictionaries, user profiles, user preferences, etc.

Graph-Based Database

The graph-based database helps users store entities and relations between those entities. Commonly, this database is used to store data on social networking websites, fraud detection systems, healthcare networks, and more.

The graph-based database stores the data as a node. The connections between nodes are known as edges. Every edge and node has a different identifier.

The database allows users to find the relationship between the data with the help of links.
Unlike relational databases, graph-based databases are multi-relational. A few well-known graph-based databases are Flock DB, Neo4J, Infinite Graph, etc.

All-in-all, we can say that a graph-based database stores, manages, and queries data as a graph structure.

Column Oriented Database

Column Oriented Database is a non-relational database. The database lets you store data in rows and read it row by row. It is like a collection of columns like we see in a table. Each column stores one type of information.

The database reads and retrieves the data at high speed. You can run analytics on a limited number of columns to read those columns without consuming memory on unwanted data.

Column Oriented Database performs queries like Count, SUM, AVG, and MIN quite quickly. Therefore, the database is used for analytics and reporting, data warehousing, and library card catalogs.

Document-Oriented Database

A document-oriented database is one of the prominent types of NoSQL databases. It stores and manages data like we organize documents in the real world.

Although the data is stored and retrieved as a key-value pair, the value is stored as a document. The database uses the JSON, XML, or BSON documents to store the data.

Users can store and retrieve documents from their networks in a form that is closer to the data objects. Therefore, negligible translation is needed to access and use data in an application.

Document-Oriented Database supports flexible schema, scalability, and quick retrieval. MongoDB and Couchbase are two fine examples of these databases.

This database is used in CMS (Content Management Systems), E-commerce websites, gaming applications, collaboration tools, etc.

So these are four types of NoSQL databases. Let’s find out why this database system is getting popular.

Features of NoSQL

NoSQL has several advancements over traditional databases. We have listed a few significant ones.

Compatible with Multiple Data Models

Like relational databases, NoSQL is not strict. It can handle multiple data models. Additionally, the database can manage structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data with the same speed.

Schema Flexibility

Unlike conventional database systems, Not SQL databases do not require a fixed schema. It supports relaxed schemas.

NoSQL is capable of managing different data formats and structures. As it does not have a strict predefined schema, it permits changes in data models.


As mentioned above, the NoSQL database is scalable. Users can scale it horizontally by adding more modes and servers. Consequently, it is suitable for websites and web applications with continuously growing data.

Excellent Uptime

NoSQL databases have excellent uptime. They support serverless architecture and create multiple copies of data on various nodes. Consequently, businesses manage their database smoothly with minimal downtime.

If one note breaks down, another takes its place and gives access to the data copy.

Examples of NoSQL

Now you know the different types of NoSQL databases and their uses. Below are some examples of them.

Document Database

MongoDB is a well-known document-oriented database. It stores data in JSON-like documents. MongoDB is popular for its scalability and flexibility.

Column Database

Apache Cassandra is a well-known column-based database system that handles large amounts of data across different commodity servers.

Graph Database

Amazon Neptune is a managed graph database service by AWS. It can work with both RDF graph and property graph models.

Key-Value Database

Amazon DynamoDB is a database service that provides high uptime and low-latency key-value storage. This service from Amazon Web Service is the epitome of a Key-Value type database.


Various types of NoSQL databases are a crucial part of modern data management systems. In this post, we discussed four types of NoSQL databases. Each database type has different capabilities and meets distinct requirements. We explored each in detail so that you can make informed decisions when choosing them.

All-in-all, we can say that NoSQL databases are shaping the landscape of modern data management.

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